Apple’s privacy changes will impact advertiser’s ability to leverage audience segments for targeting. Audience targeting unlocked huge potential because it allowed advertisers to show relevant ads, regardless of where users appeared. With the pending demise of IDFA, however, this form of advertising will become challenged. As a result, more advertisers are expected to lean in on direct partnerships with owned and operated publishers and platforms, environments where they know who they’re messaging based on the context. Although user-level tracking and attribution may become a thing of the past, it is possible to aggregate campaign success in the form of engagements, clicks, store visits or app downloads. The ability to do this is not going away.